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Preparatory General Plan

Drawn up by General Grivas in Athens two years before the start of the struggle in Cyprus


1. THE OBJECTIVE

To arouse international public opinion, especially among the allies of Greece, by deeds of heroism and self-sacrifice which will focus attention on Cyprus until our aims are achieved. The British must be continuously harried and beset until they are obliged by international diplomacy exercised through the United Nations to examine the Cyprus problem and settle it in accordance with the desires of the Cypriot people and the whole Greek nation.

2. THE PROCEDURE

Activity will be aimed at causing so much confusion and damage in the ranks of the British forces as to make it manifest abroad that they are no longer in complete control of the situation. The campaign will be carried out on three fronts :

1. Sabotage against Government installation and military posts.

2. Attacks on British forces by a considerable number of armed fighting groups.

3. Organisation of passive resistance by the population.

Because of the difficulties in the way of a large-scale guerrilla struggle, including the unsuitable terrain, the main weight of the campaign will be placed on sabotage, and therefore the chief task of the fighting groups will be to support and cover the work of the saboteurs by upsetting and diverting the Government forces. Should events take a favourable turn and if sufficient weapons become available, armed activity might be increased in scale and intensity. Success will not be achieved by minor and intermittent attacks but only by a continuous campaign aimed at getting important results. It should not be supposed that by these means we should expect to impose a total material defeat on the British forces; our purpose is to bring about a moral defeat by keeping up the offensive until the objectives stated in the first paragraph of this plan are realised.

While this campaign proceeds care will be taken to neutralise any counteraction on the part of British agents and to punish severely any Cypriots who work for the enemy or act against our interests.

The moral support of the whole Greek nation is needed. It should be made clear to the world that the people of Greece are behind the Cypriots to a man. This support will be shown by (1) demonstrations in all Greek cities; (2) public applause for our campaign immediately it starts; (3) denunciations of the violence and pressure used by the British against an unarmed people. Propaganda through newspapers, leaflets etc must be used to enlighten public opinion in Greece.

All preparations for working out the above plan at the proper time will be carried out by a Committee for the Cyprus Struggle to be set up in Athens for the purpose.

DETAIL OF REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY IN CYPRUS

A: Sabotage. Sabotage will be undertaken by special groups which will remain within the areas of their activity, living in the towns or villages where they work. Only if their identity becomes known will saboteurs be moved to places fixed in advance and from there to the mountain areas where they will become guerrillas.

Targets will be selected by the Field Commander, who will also arrange for special cover for the saboteurs by fighting groups when this is necessary. All groups will be under the immediate orders of their leaders who, in turn, will take their orders from the Field Commander.

Weapons : Saboteurs will carry pistols and grenades. They will use time-bombs, dynamite, anti-personnel and ordinary mines; also, possibly, magnetic mines.

The formation of these sabotage groups at the different centres, the securing of supplies etc will be carefully studied and decided upon by the Field Commander, who will make a personal reconnaissance of the island before the movement starts. In any case, each of the following areas will have one sabotage group to start with: Nicosia, Famagusta, Larnaca, Dhekelia base, Limassol, Episkopi, Paphos, Lapithos, Kyrenia, Pedhoulas-Lefka.

Sabotage support groups will be formed to cover the work of the saboteurs on a predetermined plan by harrying Government forces, cutting their line of communication, and attacking police stations from which help might be sent, if things go well these groups will increase their activities as time goes on, so a store of suitable material for them must be built up in Cyprus.

B: Guerrilla groups will be formed, starting with the following five: three in the Olympus area, one at Pentadactylos and one in reserve. The groups will be as follows:

Olympus groups:

1. Kykko–Stavros area: Sector of activity: the road between Lefka, Pedhoulas, Kykko Monastery and Stavros. Force: eight men. Armament: one machine-gun, two stens, eight rifles.

2. Chrysoroyiatissa Monastery area: Sector of activity: the village of Khrysokhou up to Kykko Monastery. Prodromos and Platres. Force, eight men. Armanent: one automatic, one machine-gun, two stens, six rifles.

3. Troodos village area : Sector of activity: Kakopetria, Ayios Epiphanios, Makheras Monastery, Lefkara, and west of the mountain occupied by Chrysoroyiatissa groups. Force and armament as Chrysoroyiatissa groups. Pentadactylos Groups: Sector of activity: Kyrenian mountain range from Apostolos Andreas to Myrtou and Lapithos. Force : twenty-three men. Armament : two machine-guns, one automatic tommy gun, ten rifles. This force will be divided into three sub-groups. N.B. The formation and strength of the strike groups was based on armaments already available. They can be extended if more weapons are forthcoming in the future.

Reserve forces: One (?) heavy machine-gun, eight stens, twenty-two rifles are available to arm men who would be used either to support the strike and sabotage groups or to form new strike groups in areas which may need them as the struggle develops. The positioning of these reserves would be determined from time to time. They could also be increased as more arms came in.

Each strike group should have its own permanent centre, but this can be varied within each sector to make it more difficult for the enemy to find them. Each group must also have to decide on a place of refuge in its own area, to be used both as a jumping-off point for attack or as a shelter to hide in when the odds become too great. The tactics of groups attacked by superior forces will not be to stand and fight back unless they have orders to do so for the purposes of a special mission; instead, they will escape in dribs and drabs to confuse the Government forces to a regrouping point chosen in advance. All strike groups will be equipped with mines to blow up roads, bridges and Government property.

Note: I do not believe the number of strike groups should be increased at present, for a higher number would find it harder to find hiding places and their chance of escape under attack would be lessened : the terrain should appear empty so as to avoid attracting troops and facilitate escape. It will be possible to increase groups as the struggle goes on so long as the opportunities for concealment and escape are as good as ever.

C: Passive resistance. To attain our final objectives and at the same time to help the striking and sabotage groups we shall organise passive resistance among the population so that we can anywhere and at any time upset the balance of the enemy and raise the people's morale. The population must be organised into a single internal front to boycott the British and their Cypriot agents and take part in protest demonstrations against oppressive measures by the Government. (The Cypriot agents will also be watched and special groups will undertake the execution of anyone and everyone considered dangerous to the cause.) Another important aim is the enlightenment of public opinion through the illegal Press and an information department will send out news to the committee in Athens which will see that it is given publicity. Organisation of civilians will be arranged under a responsible leader in each district.

D: Intelligence. Special centres will amass information on the movement of British forces in Cyprus, on military targets to be neutralised; on the movements and activities of the enemy so that we can counteract their intentions. These centres will be kept informed in turn by the Field Commander of what they ought to know. At the start these centres will probably be organised by district.

E: Supplies. Each group will buy its own foodstuffs through a supply agent, who will choose a base for each group's supplies and see that it is kept stocked. This base must be moved occasionally and always kept a long way from the base used by the group itself. In addition, each group will have a reserve supply of tinned food for emergency; this must be made good as soon as any of it is used.

GENERAL: Houses and other hiding places must be found by all groups ready for the accommodation of our people, either because they are about to strike nearby or because they are in danger of arrest.

ESSENTIAL PREPARATIONS

1. The dispatch of arms to Cyprus. This is in hand.

2. A visit to Cyprus of the Field Commander who will go into the objectives of the plan in detail and draw up orders for the various groups and formations. This requires at least three months.

3. Arrangements for supplying everything required for the struggle so as to ensure that material support will never be lacking.

4. Organisation of a fund to help the families of men who fall in the struggle.

 


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